Book Project (In Progress)

​Working Title: Ambiguity, Coalitions, and the Evolution of the Global Financial Inclusion Agenda

What explains the origins and evolution of the global financial inclusion agenda? Since the 2008 global financial crisis, the idea of ‘financial inclusion’ is increasingly recognized and promoted by a range of intergovernmental organizations (IGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), states, and private firms. The core claim of financial inclusion is that all individuals and small and medium enterprises (SMEs) need access to and use of financial services, specifically bank accounts, payments services, credit, and insurance. Synthesizing research on international norms, historical institutionalism, and political marketing, I develop a new concept called ‘participatory ambiguity’ to explain the co-production of ambiguity by coalition members with heterogeneous interests. Empirically, I rely on more than 70 elite interviews and archival documents to trace the evolution of the agenda at the global level and interrogate the adoption of the agenda in a country case study (Ghana) and in a thematic case study (humanitarian assistance). This project advances our understanding of the role and construction of ambiguity in coalitional politics and global governance. It also directly contributes to debates on recent challenges to Western authority, ideas, and power in global economic governance.

Peer-Reviewed Articles


Tyler Girard. 2021. Participatory Ambiguity and the Emergence of the Global Financial Inclusion Agenda. Review of International Political Economy. FirstView. 


     Winner of the ISA-Canada Best Graduate Student Paper Award, International Studies Association (ISA)             Annual Conference 2019

Tyler Girard. 2021. Reconciling the Theoretical and Empirical Study of International Norms: A New Approach to Measurement. American Political Science Review 115(1): 331-338. DOI:

Tyler Girard. 2021. When Bribery is Considered an Economic Necessity: Facilitation Payments, Norm Translation, and the Role of Cognitive Beliefs. International Studies Perspectives 22(1): 65-83. DOI:

Tyler Girard. 2020. Bank Accounts for All: How Does Financial Regulation Matter? Journal of International Development 32(5): 793-818.


Manuscripts Submitted for Review


Nandita Biswas Mellamphy, Tyler Girard, and Anne Campbell. "Interpreting Crises Through Narratives: The Construction of a COVID-19 Policy Narrative by Canada’s Political Parties." Invited to Revise & Resubmit, Critical Policy Studies (Manuscript available upon request)

Tyler Girard, Nicole McMahon, and Megan Payler. "Theorizing Norm Stagnation: Evidence from the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual (LGB) Equality and Gender Equality Norms." (Manuscript available upon request)

Working Papers

Tyler Girard. "Big Banks, Big Tech, and Big Problems? A Survey Experiment on Public Support for Open
Banking." (Manuscript available upon request)

Works in Progress

Tyler Girard. "The International Political Economy of Technology." In Erin Hannah (Ed.) Global Political Economy, 7th Edition. Oxford University Press.

Tyler Girard and Erin Hannah. "Gender, Social Reproduction, and Trade Preferences."

David Armstrong and Tyler Girard. "The Consequences of Conditioning on Covariates in Measurement Models."

Tyler Girard and Marin Macleod. "Facilitating Financial Inclusion Through Transnational Private-Public Partnerships: Evidence from Refugee Cash Transfers in Jordan."